Officer Down: Traffic Stop Turned Firestorm – Lessons Learned and a Trooper Lost

Description of the Incident
Troopers Jim Linegar and Al Hines were both in their mid-30s with about 10 years police experience. Both were dedicated, serious officers with good instincts for the job. Since they’d been assigned the same district for over four years, they often worked together. Their district was in a rural part of the state which was a major tourist area. Although, it attracted a wide variety of people, including troublemakers, most were families on vacation. Violent crime was relatively rare. Having experienced a slow day thus far, the two troopers finished their lunch and decided to conduct routine traffic spot checks. It was a clear spring day and there were several stretches of highway in the area that offered good locations. Linegar suggested an area several miles out of town on Route 34, just west of US 47, and Hines agreed. It was a good spot; traffic at this time of day was heavy enough to keep them busy and light enough to control.
Linegar stopped his patrol car on the shoulder of westbound Route 34 a short distance west of US 47, taking primary responsibility for westbound traffic. Hines took a position to check eastbound traffic by pulling to the shoulder on the opposite side of the highway about a car length west of Linegar. About 15 minutes later, Linegar began to assist Hines in checking eastbound traffic. As both troopers continued checking eastbound traffic, Hines glanced over his shoulder and saw Linegar directing an older Chevrolet van to pull off the side of the road. While this wasn’t cause for alarm, it did indicate that Linegar had noticed something worth further investigation. The van, displaying out-of-state license plates, pulled to the shoulder about 15 yards in front of Hines’ patrol car. Although busy with another motorist, Hines kept an eye on Linegar as he took the motorist’s license and walked back to Hines’ car to use the radio. (The troopers were equipped with portable radios, but they weren’t very reliable at this location).

A few moments later, Linegar motioned for Hines to come over to the patrol car. After releasing the driver he’d just stopped, Hines walked over to Linegar.      

“What’cha got?” he asked.

“A possible hit on this guy for a weapons violation,” Linegar replied. He handed Hines an operator’s license from a state other than the one shown on the vehicle’s plates and commented, “I don’t think this is the same guy, Al. The hit’s on an alias and this guy’s physical doesn’t match. The warrant was just entered yesterday and it gives a weight of only 150. This guy’s a lot heavier than that, and his license shows 180 pounds. It looks like good I.D.”

Hines looked at the license. It indicated that the driver was a 23 year-old man named Matthew Mark Samuels, a white-male, 5 feet, 10 inches and weighing 180 pounds. “Who’s the van issued to?” he asked. Linegar shrugged slightly as he answered, “It’s not on file. I just don’t think we have the right guy. He seems calm enough and didn’t argue when I told him to pull over. Let’s check him out.”

As Linegar approached the driver’s door along the left side of the van, Hines stepped around to the right and approached the passenger door. Both troopers had their revolvers holstered as they moved forward. When Hines reached the passenger door, he looked inside and saw the driver watching Linegar in the outside mirror. The driver, a young man with an outdoorsman look, immediately glanced over at Hines, and then turned his attention back to Linegar. He looked like the same man pictured on the operator’s license. There was no one else inside the van, but there was a big dog, a large amount of camping gear, a duffel bag and numerous other items cluttering the interior. Hines could see no weapons.

In the meantime, Linegar reached a point just behind the driver’s door and asked,   “Is this your van, sir?” The driver showed only the slightest nervousness as he answered, “No Sir.” The answer wasn’t particularly unusual, but it begged for more answers. Linegar asked the next logical question, “Whose is it?”

With no apparent change in his demeanor, the driver answered, “A friend of mine’s.”

“What’s your friend’s name?” Linegar shot back.

“I don’t remember,” the driver said, “I really don’t know him that well.”

His suspicions now clearly aroused, Linegar took a step back and ordered the driver out of the van. The man opened the door and turned to his left as if to step out. Anticipating that Linegar would be escorting the driver to the back of the van, Hines started to step away from the door and move to the rear. Trooper Linegar had good reason to be suspicious. The NCIC hit had been a good one. A federal warrant had just been issued charging the driver, a radical survivalist named David Tate, with a federal weapons violation. The warrant had been issued in Tate’s correct name, and the name on the license had accurately been flagged as one of Tate’s known aliases.

As he turned away from the door, Hines heard the unmistakable sound of muffled automatic gunfire. The first short burst, directed through the open window of the right front door, was followed immediately by a second, much longer burst. As he stepped out of the van, Tate had grabbed a silenced Ingram MAC II machine-pistol from somewhere near the driver’s seat. Recognizing that he would be vulnerable to crossfire from Hines if he shot Linegar first, but failing to notice that Hines had just moved away from the door, Tate fired a quick burst through the passenger window before turning the gun on Linegar.

Tate’s attack happened so suddenly that Trooper Linegar didn’t have time to draw his weapon. He spun around and headed for cover as Tate pivoted and opened fire on him. Eleven rounds of .380 hardball smashed into Linegar’s upper body. Five of the eleven were stopped as they struck his body armor, and four struck him in the arms and shoulders, causing relatively superficial wounds. But two tore into his upper left torso. One of these stopped after plunging into his left lung, and the other slashed through the left lung and heart before stopping inside the right lung. Although mortally wounded, Linegar managed to stumble back to the rear of the van and out of Tate’s line of fire. He fell forward after reaching a spot about eight feet behind the van.

Meanwhile, Trooper Hines drew his weapon, a Smith & Wesson Model 28 and ran to the rear of the van as Tate turned back and moved up to its front end. Just as Hines reached the rear of the van, Tate appeared at the right front fender and fired another burst at him. Three rounds struck the retreating trooper, but all were superficial. Hines was fighting for his life and didn’t even notice. Ducking behind the van, he thrust the .357 around the corner, fired two quick shots toward Tate and dove to the ground. While prone, Hines looked under the van and spotted Tate’s feet underneath the front bumper about halfway between the two front tires. Remembering some recent training that included a demonstration of ricochet shots, he fired two rounds into the pavement in front of Tate’s feet, sending chunks of broken asphalt and lead flying into his ankles. Tate instantly jumped to his left and landed behind the left front tire. Hines waited, his revolver pointed toward the tire. He was in big trouble and he knew it! His
magnum packed a pretty good wallop, but it was no match for Tate’s full auto. Besides, the revolver was about to run dry. Although Hines had two speedloaders on his belt, he was lying on his stomach with the speedloaders pressed between his body and the pavement. It would take time to dig them out, and it was agonizingly slow to reload under these circumstances, even when using speedloaders.

To make matters worse, there was nowhere to go if Tate charged him. The patrol car was too far away and he couldn’t run for the tree line without exposing himself. Hines felt a tinge of panic starting to grow in the pit of his stomach, but he fought it. There was nothing to do but fight back–he instantly made up his mind to do just that, no matter what! However, he had to locate his adversary first. Was Tate still behind the tire or running away? Had he somehow managed to move to some other location? Hines scooted to his right just far enough to see around the tire and spotted Tate running away from him down the center line. Springing upward, Hines quickly moved to the left side of the van, took aim at the rapidly retreating form and cranked off two more shots. Tate kept running, without missing a stride.

Hines pulled the trigger again, only to be disappointed by the sound of a click. His gun now empty, he turned and saw Linegar lying face down on the shoulder of the road. Although he’d been too busy to notice Linegar’s exact movements or condition until now, he wasn’t surprised. He’d heard the burst of gunfire from Tate’s Ingram and he knew Linegar would’ve returned fire had he been able. Hines ran to the fallen trooper and rolled him onto his back, revealing that Linegar was unconscious and  grievously wounded. Both sides of his uniform shirt were soaked in blood and the gurgling that accompanied each labored breath made it clear that his lungs had been punctured. Hines ran to his patrol car, snatched up the microphone and called for an ambulance. With the sudden realization that his adversary might return, he quickly reloaded his revolver and grabbed the shotgun from its rack. Bringing the shotgun up to his shoulder, he started to rack a round, but realized that Tate was almost 150 yards away and any attempt to hit him at that range was futile.

Hines threw the shotgun on the front seat of the patrol car and ran back to his friend. Linegar was still breathing, so Hines tore open his shirt, ripped off the front panel of his vest and unbuckled his gun belt. As he located two bullet holes in Linegar’s side, he heard two more breaths and then Linegar stopped breathing. Hines started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As he worked to save his friend, he felt the sting of a wound in his right shoulder. Assuming that he’d struck his shoulder on the trailer hitch when he dove for cover, he ignored the pain. The first officer on the scene, a highway patrol lieutenant, arrived about five minutes later. He assisted Hines in administering CPR until both were relieved by other responding officers.

While Hines provided a description of Tate, the ambulance arrived, followed by an emergency medical helicopter from a nearby city. The pilot had overheard radio traffic about the downed trooper and had turned his chopper in that direction several minutes before the dispatcher requested it. Hines was assisting with traffic control for the helicopter when a paramedic walked up to him and mentioned that he was bleeding. Looking down at his right arm, Hines saw two holes in the bloody shirt sleeve. As he took off his shirt to check the wound, he felt a stinging pain in his right hip. After finding bullet wounds at both locations, he discovered that he’d also been hit near his throat. He’d been lucky–all three wounds were superficial, missing bone, major blood vessels and major muscle tissue. While Linegar was being flown to a trauma center, Hines was transported by ambulance to a hospital. He was released the following day, and attended Trooper Linegar’s funeral a few days later.

Meanwhile, the van was found to contain a virtual arsenal of semi- and fully-automatic weapons, silencers, thousands of rounds of ammunition, hand grenades, explosives and other weapons. Apparently, Tate was making a gun run to a nearby survivalist camp when stopped by the troopers. Over 300 law enforcement officers from federal, state and local law enforcement agencies flooded the area to join in the manhunt for Tate. Their efforts paid off six days later when Tate was spotted near a wooded area about 20 miles from the scene. Responding officers arrested the cop killer as he headed toward a thicket where he’d concealed the machine pistol he’d used to murder Trooper Linegar. Five rounds remained in the weapon’s 30-round magazine. He later admitted that he’d decided to shoot his way out of trouble with the police long before Linegar and Hines stopped him. Investigators also learned that he’d practiced rolling out of a van and shooting to the rear while training at a survivalist camp.

Tate was subsequently tried and convicted of capital murder, armed criminal action, and first-degree assault. He was sentenced to life imprisonment without parole for Trooper Linegar’s murder, plus 15 years for the assault on Trooper Hines. Al Hines went on to retire from the highway patrol and is now a law enforcement instructor. Because he still maintains close contact with Jim Linegar’s family, he was recently privileged to attend the graduation of Linegar’s son, Michael, from the highway patrol academy. In a rare departure from departmental regulations, Michael was issued a badge number that had belonged to a fallen trooper–his father.

Analysis: Questionable-Risk Situations
It was evident from the beginning that Tate could be dangerous, yet there was something vague about the threat. The first hints that something might be wrong were Tate’s out-of-state driver’s license and plates, and the fact that they were from different states. While this in itself wasn’t cause for concern, it aroused Linegar’s suspicions enough for him to run Tate’s name, which led to the hit on the weapons violation. This was the first solid danger sign and a significant one. While any computer hit raises the risk, one for a weapons violation should automatically elevate the threat level to high.

On the other hand, the hit was on an alias and the subject’s weight on the warrant was significantly lower than the weight shown on Tate’s driver’s license. The weight difference was made more significant because Tate’s size appeared to match that shown on his driver’s license rather than the warrant, and the warrant had been entered just the day before–Tate couldn’t have put on that amount of weight in just one day. Also, since this was a tourist area, it attracted many out-of-state visitors and Tate did look the part of a camper. The uncertainty caused by these conflicting factors lessened the concern that would otherwise have existed over a possible warrant for a weapons violation. It also goes a long way in explaining why Trooper Linegar decided to approach the van.

A much safer method would have been to employ high-risk tactics as soon as he was advised of the hit on Tate. However, Linegar decided against it because he doubted that Tate was actually the wanted subject. Under those circumstances, were full-fledged high-risk vehicle stop tactics actually called for? Trooper Hines thinks so, and always made it a point to employ them on all felony or weapons violations after that, even when the hit was on an alias or other vague information. Hines also believes that police departments should train their officers to take this approach, and support them when the reasonableness of their tactics is questioned. Good advice.

Still, there are times when the information on a hit is way off base or when questionable information makes it difficult to justify the use of high-risk tactics. All of us are influenced to some extent by public relations concerns. With time, concern about possible complaints, the need to maintain good rapport and professional image with the public, and complacency that comes with experience, are all likely to have an impact on our actions. It can be argued that these concerns should never supersede officer safety, but it is unrealistic to ignore their influence. Instead, we must acknowledge these issues and develop alternatives for dealing with them in a way that doesn’t detract from officer safety. These concerns tend to have the greatest influence on our actions when we’re confronted with situations like the one that led to Trooper Linegar’s death. This happens when the circumstances clearly entail more risk than an unknown-risk encounter, yet the danger is too vague to justify high-risk tactics. Without c
lear indication of how to proceed, many officers opt for unknown-risk tactics, leaving them vulnerable. Questionable-risk tactics are needed, but the time to develop these tactics is before we need them, not after.

In most cases, questionable-risk tactics entail little more than simple modifications to existing high-risk tactics. In this case, for example, the troopers could have called Tate out of the van using essentially the same tactics as those used during high-risk vehicle stops, but with their weapons either holstered or held out of view. Their verbal commands could also have been simpler. Instead of removing Tate from the van with detailed, step-by-step instructions, they could have just told him to step slowly from the van with his hands spread open, palms forward, and in plain view. Although these commands are less effective than those used on a full-fledged high-risk stop, they are lower profile, while still offering greater safety than approaching the van. The thoroughness of the commands can vary depending on the perceived threat. They key is to keep your distance, stay behind cover, direct the motorist back to you in a controlled manner and be ready to shift to higher profile tactics if necessary.

It should also be mentioned that Trooper Linegar’s patrol car was on the other side of the highway, putting it out of position for a conventional high-risk stop. Although it could’ve been moved, that would have alerted Tate that they were on to him. A better option would have been to further modify their tactics by taking advantage of the position of Trooper Linegar’s vehicle to cover Tate from the other side of the highway as he exited the van. With both troopers behind their vehicles for cover and Tate in a crossfire position, it would have been difficult for Tate to initiate an effective attack. As often happens, the troopers were dealing with a situation that departed from the textbook model of a high-risk traffic stop. By making a slight adjustment to the tactics normally used for high-risk stops, they could’ve greatly improved their level of control as they removed Tate from the van.

Misinterpreting Danger Signs
Because of Tate’s lack of options for dealing with questionable-risk situations, Trooper Linegar made the fateful decision to approach the van. It was at this point that the danger signs began to skyrocket. As Linegar began to question Tate, he appeared to be only slightly nervous, but his answers were evasive, making it evident that he was hiding something and that he could be dangerous. Unfortunately, the troopers were stuck in the danger zone by then. They were no longer in position to conduct a high-risk stop and were still uncertain about what they had. Based on the ambiguity of the hit on Tate, the large amount of camping gear in the back of the van, Tate’s age and the fact that drug violations were common among young campers visiting the area, Hines believed Tate was probably carrying drugs. We can also be reasonably sure that Trooper Linegar didn’t feel particularly threatened either, because he never drew his weapon. His immediate reaction was to step back and order Tate out of the van. Tragically, this seemingly harmless action opened the door for the attack that followed, an attack that came so quickly that Linegar wasn’t able to mount an effective counterattack.

Ambiguity alone cannot explain Trooper Linegar’s decision to order Tate out of the van. Other factors must have played a role here: like almost all veteran officers,  Linegar had apparently become desensitized to danger. This laxness appears to have led him to misinterpret the danger signs. It’s obvious that he noted Tate’s evasive answers and slight nervousness, and that he realized the man had something to hide. But that’s where that old nemesis of veteran officers’ laxness came into play. Years of dealing with criminals without meeting lethal challenges had apparently desensitized him to the fact that there might be more to Tate’s behavior than a simple desire to avoid getting caught. Tate had long before decided that he would shoot his way out of trouble if cornered, and he knew that time would come. It was this realization that led him to behave the way he did. It is seldom possible to distinguish between the behavior of someone who just wants to avoid arrest and someone who is planning to kill. Always assume that there are dangerous motives behind suspicious behavior.

Rushing to Conclusions
A misinterpretation of danger signs can lead to hazardous decisions. Once we realize that someone is hiding something, the natural response is to find out what. If we don’t approach wisely, this urge can thrust us into a dangerous situation. I’m sure the majority of law enforcement officers will admit to abruptly ordering a motorist out of his car once we realized the individual was trying to hide something. Even though this action is dangerous, it’s something many officers do without giving the tactical implications a second thought. Trooper Linegar’s death serves as a stark reminder of the need to use a different approach.

We must make it a habit to put safety first. We must continually assess the risks, take note of our own areas of vulnerability and plan to compensate for them. Always think: “What’s might be wrong here and what can I do about it?” Like other behaviors, ways of thinking are habits that can be developed over time. If reinforced with practice, our thoughts will eventually become part of the way we do business and they will guide our actions. If we focus on safety as our top priority, we’ll be in a much better position to control potentially violent encounters. And, if the encounter can’t be avoided, we’ll have a better chance of coming out the winner.

In this case for example, Trooper Linegar could have first ordered Tate not to move. After this command was obeyed, he could have then ordered him out of the van one step at a time, using a slow, well-ordered series of commands, starting with a command to slowly put his hands on the steering wheel. Since the computer hit was for a weapons violation, this should have been done while holding Tate at gunpoint. Even if Linegar hadn’t drawn his weapon, this approach would’ve at least made it harder for Tate to reach his weapon without being detected.

Another option would have been to move in closer. Although unconventional and entailing risks of its own, this approach has considerable merit. By moving up right next to the door, it’s possible to block the door from opening and quickly reach the motorist’s weapon if he produces one. Preplanning, a high level of danger awareness and quick reflexes are needed here, but if you are ready with a plan, you can instantly counter an armed attack by grabbing or deflecting the weapon. The key is to be ready and to attack his weapon first. Your quick counterattack will catch him off guard, momentarily prevent him from delivering accurate fire and enable you to immediately deliver devastating fire to vital target areas at close range. Although risky, this tactic is better than backing away from a vehicle while ordering its occupants to get out. With proper preplanning, it can be an effective way of dealing with a grave threat. Hands-on training with Airsoft, Simunitions or other safe weapons can help maximize the effectiveness of this tactic.

Close Range Attacks
Unfortunately, Trooper Linegar’s decision to immediately order Tate out of the van was a crucial turning point in the encounter. The speed of the attack obviously caught him off guard. He was out in the open and directly in his assailant’s line-of-fire with no time to decide on an effective counterattack. Nevertheless, this was far from a hopeless situation. It’s not easy, but if we remain alert and have planned for the threat beforehand, we can react quickly enough to overcome it. The key is to watch for situations that make you vulnerable to sudden close range attacks, and be ready to attack your assailant’s weapon. Charge into him, knock the weapon away from you (or grab it if you can) and, as you keep charging forward to keep him physically and mentally off balance, draw and fire. Keep moving and keep shooting until he is no longer a threat.

This immediate and aggressive counterattack is necessary because there normally isn’t time to outdraw him or go to cover. Moving backward is also counterproductive, because it doesn’t move you out of his line-of-fire and people can’t move quickly in reverse. In some cases, quick movement to one side can give you time to draw and return fire, but he can still shoot you if he isn’t immediately incapacitated. If you’re close enough, it’s best to grab the weapon, pushing the muzzle away from you as you move. This response requires preplanning and commitment. You must train for it. Practice with a partner using safe training guns. Proper training will build confidence in your ability to respond effectively. It will also precondition you to react much quicker and help you develop the skills necessary to do so with maximum effectiveness.

Training played a key role in Trooper Hines’ ability to fight back. His department had recently conducted red handle gun training (the forerunner of modern interactive firearms training) and Hines credits this instruction with saving his life. The primary goal of the training was to teach officers to fight back when under fire, and it did just that. Trooper Hines recalled that he reacted to Tate’s assault without conscious effort, returning fire reflexively as he’d been taught. His training also included a discussion on the value of shooting at the best available target when firing at a well-covered suspect, as well as instruction in the use of ricochet shots. As a result, when he was unable to get a good shot at Tate, he ricocheted shots off the pavement into his feet. This quick action may well have saved Hines’ life.

In a tragic twist of fate, Hines also believes that Trooper Linegar quickly moved to the rear of the van because of his training. Due to its focus on fighting back, the red handle gun training had also heavily emphasized the use of cover. Unfortunately, it had not included training on how to counter close range attacks because that issue wasn’t typically addressed at that time. Sadly, it appears that Trooper Linegar’s movement toward the rear of the van apparently exposed his unprotected side to Tate’s gunfire, which led to the fatal hits to his torso.

Conversely, Linegar’s movement may have also helped save Hines’ life. Hines speculates that Tate, uncertain as to how badly Linegar had been wounded, probably feared that both troopers were returning fire. Tate later told investigators that he didn’t know who was returning fire at him when he felt the bullet and road fragments hitting his ankles. Wounded and unwilling to press the attack against two armed opponents, Tate decided it would be better to flee the scene. If Trooper Linegar had fallen where he stood when first hit instead of going for cover as he was trained, it would have been clear to Tate that he had only one trooper to contend with and he may have pressed the attack. This would have put Hines, who only had two rounds left in his handgun, in a very dangerous position.

Another factor related to training was the absence of instruction on working together as a team. The troopers worked alone the majority of the time and this most likely detracted from their ability to communicate and coordinate their actions. This is still a common problem in many parts of the country, especially with departments serving large rural areas. Trainers need to focus more on teamwork to help ensure that their officers maximize the tactical advantage of backup officers when they’re available.

Suspect Mindset
It’s obvious from Tate’s actions and statements that he was cool and calculating in his violence. He had planned to kill in order to avoid arrest and even practiced to do it while exiting his van. When the time came to launch his premeditated attack, he cold-bloodedly fired a burst at Hines before turning his weapon on Linegar. That first burst was clearly meant to take Hines out so he could focus on killing Linegar, and it was done at a speed that startled Linegar into a brief, yet fatal instant of inaction. This brutally effective application of lethal force demonstrated the kind of killer instinct found among violent criminals. Although people of this nature are rare, our line of work sometimes places us in their paths and it’s our job to deal with them. Despite their cold-blooded brutality, they can be defeated, as many good officers have proven, but it takes awareness, courage, skill and commitment. We never know when we might meet a David Tate, so we must keep our guard up at all times, believe in ourselves, train hard and be unwavering in our commitment to win against all odds.

Winning Mindset
Trooper Hines’ courageous response to Tate’s attack demonstrated many things about his attitude, character and mindset. As previously acknowledged, training played an important role in his performance, but it’s not enough to just show up at the range. Like many winners, Hines took his training seriously and always employed imagination. To him, training wasn’t a chore, but an opportunity to prepare for the future. He used his imagination to bring greater reality to his training, with full realization that a lethal confrontation could happen at any time. Like other winners, he pushed himself hard, making persistence a habit.

Finally, although he sees his actions as nothing more than what he’d been trained to do, Hines’ response was far more than that. He never stopped thinking, never stopped adapting and remained focused on what he could do to combat the threat. He thought to look for Tate’s feet under the van, to fire at whatever target he could see and to use ricochet shots to get hits. After firing these shots, he thought to pause and watch for further movement and then changed positions just enough to see what had happened to his opponent.

Remember, Hines did all this in spite of the fact that he knew he was in big trouble. He knew that he was facing a superior weapon, running low on ammo and lying on his only spare rounds. He knew there wasn’t any good cover if Tate renewed the attack and there wasn’t anywhere to run. He even began to panic, but refused to submit to it. Instead, he focused on the one thing he could do to defeat his opponent–he fought back with determination and courage. Winners do this! They don’t deny the danger. Instead, they face it with a positive belief in themselves and their ability to fight back. They focus on their capabilities, on what they can do to deal with the problem, not on their vulnerabilities.

Trooper Hines’ courageous actions provide a dramatic example of how important it is to fight back regardless of the odds. Although he was pitted against a fully automatic weapon with only a six-shot revolver, he proved that an aggressive counterattack can pull victory from defeat. Return fire gives your adversary something else to think about; it makes him rethink his plan of attack and usually puts him on the defensive. Far more often than not, it will kill or wound him, convince him to give up or force him to flee. In short, it stops the fight and you win. Always, always fight back, no matter what! 

* Develop tactics for dealing with questionable-risk situations.

* Avoid making snap decisions based on a suspect’s suspicious behavior. Instead, assume that he may be planning to attack and proceed accordingly.

* Counter close-range armed attacks by charging your assailant as you attack his weapon, and keep pressing forward.

* Focus on your capabilities, on what you can do to deal with a problem, not on your vulnerabilities.

* Always fight back, no matter what!

As a service to its readers, The Police Marksman includes Officer Down as a regular feature in each issue. In order to present clear and relevant case studies, we would like to draw from our largest available resources–our readers. If you have, or can obtain, factual information on actual incidents that you think we can use, please write to:

Brian McKenna
7412 Lynn Grove Ct.
Hazelwood, MO  63042
or call collect at  (314) 921-6977

About the Author
Brian McKenna, a 31-year police veteran, is a lieutenant with a midwestern police department, where he serves as a shift supervisor, lead firearms instructor and in-service training officer. He holds an MS in management and development of human resources, is a certified police instructor with teaching experience at both the academy and in-service level, and is a member of ILEETA and The Police Marksman National Advisory Board.

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